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Saturday, February 5, 2011

WOMEN IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: CAN WOMEN REACH THE TOP BREAKING THROUGH GLASS CEILING IN MANAGEMENT


WOMEN IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: CAN WOMEN REACH THE TOP BREAKING THROUGH GLASS CEILING IN MANAGEMENT

Ajay Singh[1], Reena Singh[2], Sarjiwan Dass3

Glass Ceiling: Introduction
Theories as to why the “glass ceiling” continues in corporate India are varied. Most research on the topic points to stereotypes, lack of efforts to recruit women, and lack of women in important pipeline positions.
How could a woman be expected to break through the glass ceiling if she can't even get on a career path that brings her close enough to touch it? Why should the opportunities available to a woman be less than those available to a man, given both have the same number of years of education, the same degree from the same institution, and similar skills? These women, and others climbing the leadership ladder as hospitality women, didn't set out to break through the glass ceiling up to level in an industry that's predominantly male.
In many respects, the degree of freedom women enjoy, or rather do not enjoy, and have a great deal to with the politics of economics. Women who are not able to pursue a career or who do not earn enough to maintain an adequate standard of living are dependent on their husbands or government agencies for financial support.
Many employers claim it's because young women stay on the job for a few years and then leave to have a family. Let's look at this from another angle. Perhaps if women were offered a sufficient amount of maternity leave, salaries equivalent to those of men doing the same work, adequate childcare, and the possibility of corporate advancement they would continue to work. Maybe if all employees were offered the opportunity of a flexible work environment, i.e. flextime and telecommuting options, there would be greater retention of good employees. And what if men were encouraged to, or rather weren't discouraged from taking paternity leave. Then women wouldn't have to take as much time away from their jobs when a couple starts a family.
The term “glass ceiling” was coined in the 1970s in the United States to describe the invisible artificial barriers, created by attitudinal and organizational prejudices, barring women form top executive jobs. According to a new ILO report, “Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management”, it’s an apt definition for an ongoing problem. And despite recent progress, the glass ceiling is still relatively intact.

Women are better educated and hold more jobs worldwide than ever before. Yet most women continue to suffer from occupational segregation in the workplace and rarely break through the so called “glass ceiling” separating them from top management and professional positions. A new ILO report says that while substantial progress has been made in closing the gender gap in managerial and professional jobs, for women in management it’s still lonely at the top.

The report says that most female managers are still barred from the top levels of organizations worldwide, whether in the private, public or political sectors. Women hold less than 5 percent of the top jobs in corporations. And even when they manage to rise to the top, female executives nearly always earn less than men.

“Almost universally, women have failed to reach leading positions in major corporations and private sector organizations, irrespective of their abilities,” says ILO labor expert and report author Linda Wirth. “Women represent more than 40 percent of world’s labor force. Yet their share of management positions remains unacceptably low, with just tiny proportion succeeding in breaking through the glass ceiling to obtain top jobs”(ILO  Report, 1998).

Women in the professional service sector work in a wide variety of occupations: scientists, engineers, architects, lawyers, accountants, economists, statisticians, computer programmers and specialists, administrators and managers. Together with their male counterparts, they are well qualified, possess a high degree of technological know-how, and remain in business and else where, there is no need to invoke conscious (or subconscious) male-led conspiracies designed to deny women opportunities for achievement. Whatever the objective merits or shortcomings of the different goals selected by men and women, the reality of those differences provides a sufficient explanation for most situations. Business which continue to hire only males for top level positions out of a desire to maintain a “good old boys” environment will – in free society- eventually find themselves at a competitive disadvantage with rivals who promote more competent, “underpaid” females to do the same kind of work. “There is a ‘glass ceiling’ in the middle of the ladder leading to the top, and it cannot be seen. ‘But when women run into it they bump their heads and cannot move beyond it without the women’s movement (Nora Frenkiel, 1984).”

Richard Martell and Christopher Parker identify stereotypes as a major barrier to women. They noted in the Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, that women are perceived as “lacking the characteristics most needed to succeed and, consequently, were often judged to be less qualified than men (Richard Martell and Christopher Parker, 1998), and they identified at least one study form the 1980’s that showed that ‘characteristics of successful middle managers were more similar to descriptions of men than women” (Brian S. Moskal, 1997).

Factors contributing to the slow pace of change point to the maintenance of traditional views on men and women’s social and economic roles, even though in practice there have been far-reaching changes in women’s participation in the labor market. Such views stem largely from women’s primary responsibility for family care and welfare. They affect the choices made by men and women in terms of study courses and the type of jobs seek. At the same time, educational systems, the mass media and recruitment and promotion procedures have often institutionalized certain gender biases and unwittingly continue to perpetuate discriminatory practices with regard to women.

Governments, enterprises and organizations have, over the years, explored ways of eradicating discrimination and ensuring gender equality. They have committed themselves to policies and programs to advance women workers. While these have met with varying degrees of success, they have undoubtedly had a positive impact, especially on younger generations of men and women. In many instances, developing detailed career plans for women within enterprises has been proven to be instrumental in ensuring equal opportunities in career progression. Special support through networks, coaching, mentoring and training has also been found to be effective in encouraging women and making them more visible. One of the greatest challenges, however, is still how to make the structures and dynamics within an organization more conducive and sensitive to gender equality concept and practice. Without such a watershed change from within, women will, in the years to come, continue to experience “glass ceilings” and “glass walls” an invisible barriers.

In long term, however, it can be expected that demographic and social trends will induce changes in societies and therefore, in organizations, with falling fertility rates and growing influx of women, the composition of the market will continue to be affected, pushing up the demand for skilled female. In an increasing number of companies, the growth in the proportion of qualified women should make them more visible, providing a base for the upward mobility of more women.

The government with longstanding commitment to ensuring more and better jobs for women today requires an energetic effort to promote gender equality in an increasingly competitive global economy and complex institutional frame works. Its constituents are often called on to respond too many, often shifting, priorities and needs. But unless there is recognition that equality is an essential pillar in the building of societies that are both socially and economically advanced, any progress will be, at participate in decision-making functions in all those entities relevant to economic development.

There is no doubt that significant progress has been achieved in the advancement or women over recent years, with their increasing movement into occupations, professions and managerial jobs previously held only by men. Women’s access to education training continues to improve, providing them with the necessary qualifications to aspire to top jobs in the financial and business services. Governments, enterprises, workers’ and women’s organizations have poured much thought and energy into overcoming attitudinal and institutional discrimination, which bar women from certain jobs and hinder their career development. Yet for many the results fall short of expectations. Real obstacles remain and are often rooted in the way work itself is organized and the difficulties involved in reconciling work and family commitments. Current debates on managerial styles and approaches, together with the importance an increasing number of enterprises attach to attracting and retaining women in order to benefit from their qualifications and talent in a competitive environment could provide positive perspectives for increasing women’s share of managerial jobs.

The proper avenue for victims of prejudice is to respect the very right which protects them: to seek change by persuasion, education, and argument; by working harder and producing more than those who do discriminate against them; and by utilizing only nonviolent means to their noble ends. Better, yet, they can create their own business where women seeking executive positions are welcomed, not rejected. The need to realize, that the initiation of force is always wrong. The constructive power of demonstrating merit will –in the long run and deposit personal prejudice win out over the destructive actions of discrimination.  Those who complain about the glass ceiling should keep in mind that glass can be shattered if one strikes it hard enough and long enough.

Women Executives: Still struggling to break the glass ceiling
According to national surveys, women’s overall share of management jobs rarely exceeds 20 percent. The higher the position, the more glaring the gender gap, in the largest and most powerful organizations the proportion of top positions going to women is generally 2 to 3 percent.

For example, a 1995 survey of the 70,000 largest German Companies found that only 1 to 3 percent of top executive and board members are women. In Brazil, a 1991 survey of Major Corporation revealed that only around 3 percent of top executive were women. In the United States women held only just over 2 percent at the higher-ranking corporate positions of 500 the largest companies (Fortune 500) in 1996.
 

Myths: Some people say that there is invisible barrier or “Glass Ceiling” that hinders or excludes women from advancement to upper man positions.
The responses on the above question are quite interesting, the number of women respondents who said that the there is little or at no extents invisible barriers or “glass ceiling” that hinders or excludes women from advancement to upper man positions, 53% Women respondents said that the glass ceiling exists in the hospitality industry at very little extent, while 20% women respondents said that there is no place of the “glass ceiling” in the hospitality industry presently. 17% women accept that the “glass ceiling” exists in the service sector company but to a moderate extent. Only 10% out of 180 respondents accepts that “glass ceiling” exists in the hospitality industry at a great extent.

This shows that mostly women do not agree, that glass ceiling in the hospitality sector is existing today with a great extent, but some of them  accept it that it have it place in the industry at a very low extent. It also shows that the current scenario of India is changing

Figure No.: 1
 rapidly, industry at a very low extent. It also shows that the current scenario of India is changing rapidly, women have increased their ratio in every field of corporate management as well as in corporate world.

The higher the position, the more glaring the gender gap
In terms of international comparisons of women in management, ILO data constitutes the most complete data set. However, one drawback of this data is that it also includes administrative workers, thus giving the impression that more women hold management jobs than is actually the case, just the same, statistics show that over time women are increasing their share in administrative and managerial work.

The assertion that an insufficient number of qualified women exist to fill more top jobs is rapidly becoming outmoded. While gender differences still exist in professional study choices, women worldwide are demonstrating their intellectual ability and are approaching the levels of men in educational attainment. They are also gradually increasing their share in scientific and technological studies, although their representation in engineering remains low.


Why Women Are Blocked?
The fact remains that it is the nature of women career paths that blocks their progress to top position. At lower management levels women are typically placed in non-strategic sectors, and in personnel and administrative positions, rather than in professional and line management jobs leading to the top. Often these initial disadvantages are compounded by women being cut of from networks, formal and informal, so essential for advancement within enterprises. It is notable that in large companies and organizations where women have achieved high-level managerial positional, these are usually restricted to those areas considered less vital and strategic to the organization such as human resource and administration.

For example, the increase in women’s share of positions as personnel and labor relations managers in the United States was higher than in other areas of management, advancing from 21 percent in 1970 to 58 percent in 1991. In Finland, the proportion of personnel managers who are women increased dramatically, from 17 percent in 1970 to 70 percent in 1990. Women’s career trajectory does not often provide for women to move at an early stage into strategic areas, such as product development or corporate finance allowing an upward movement to key executive positions in the pyramidal structure characteristic of large corporations. Sometimes, these barriers are referred as to “glass walls”.

For women with family responsibilities, their upward movement may be hampered as they juggle time to devote to both career families. An important feature of professional and especially managerial work are the long working hours that seem to be required to gain recognition and eventual promotion. Part-time managers are a rare breed and yet it seems virtually impossible to reconcile long hours with the demands of running a home and caring for children. As a result, in certain countries there are indications that women, more than men forego marriage and children for the sake of their careers.

Current debates on more flexible managerial styles and approaches (with a view to maximizing human resource), together with the interest of enterprises in attracting and retaining qualified and talented women in a competitive environment, could provide positive perspective for increasing women’s share of managerial jobs.
Governments, enterprise and organization have, over the years, committed themselves to policies and programs to advance women. While these have met with varying degrees of success, they have undoubtedly had a positively effect, especially on younger generations of men and women. Given women’s increasing level of qualification and work performances, it might have been expected that they would have moved more quickly up the career ladder in recent years. This has not been the case, and for many the pace of change is just too slow. Participation in decision-making is proving to be one of the most resistant areas yet for gender equality.

Nevertheless, in many instances, the development of detailed career plans within enterprises has been shown to be instrumental in promoting equal opportunities in career progression. Special support through networks, coaching, mentoring and training has also been found to be effective in encouraging women and making them more visible. Not only is specific action required to ensure that women careers are not stymied, but increasingly their opportunities will be enhanced by the creation of workforce which are more dynamic, flexible, value- diverse, are more people-oriented and family-friendly.

One of the greatest challenges that remains is how to make the structures and dynamics within organizations more conductive and sensitive to gender equality concepts and practice. This is particularly crucial in more environments where new management structures and work roles involve restructuring, downsizing, decentralization and delaying in the bid to be more globally competitive. Without such a watershed change from within firms and enterprises, women will, in the years to come, continue to experience “glass ceiling” and “glass walls” as invisible barriers to position of management.

More than 100 participants, mainly women, attended a tripartite meeting on breaking through the glass ceiling, held at ILO headquarters on 15 to 19 December 1997. Twenty countries were invited by the governing body to be represented by a tripartite national delegation. Observers from additional governments, as will as intergovernmental and non-governmental international organizations were also represented.

The discussion was wide-ranging, with a number of participants informing the meeting of various national initiatives to advance gender equality and promote women in management. The meeting discussed obstacles to women’s career development, underlining that social and cultural biases were a major factor discriminating against women and holding them back from attaining higher-level jobs.

Such prejudices were often reflected in a subjective application of recruitment and promotion procedures and so there was a need to develop positive measures to counter the often-invisible barriers blocking women’s carriers. The meeting identified many complementary strategies to promote women in management, covering areas such as training, networking, mentoring, review of recruitment and promotion systems, family-friendly policies, awareness-raising, positive action, evolving enterprise culture, tripartite concentration, recognition of women’s increasing economic role of governments, employers’ workers’ organizations and women’s organizations in promotion gender equality and women in management. Participants underlined the importance of a tripartite approach and the strategic issue of ensuring more women in decision-making positions the structures of organizations.

The conclusions adopted by the meeting emphasized the need for adequate tool and appropriate indicators for research on higher-equality issues and requested the ILO to collect data based on country definitions of women in management and to examine the feasibility of revising the international Standard Classification of Occupations so that comparative analysis can be conducted in this field.

Conclusions adopted by the participants at the tripartite meeting on Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management recommended several strategies to promote women in management, including:

§         Regulatory mechanism and legal frameworks to eliminate discrimination on grounds of sex;
§         Affirmative action and guidelines to genuinely change attitudes, while taking existing diversities in account;
§         The adoption of appropriate steps by enterprise, institutions and governments to ensure that employees are aware of obligations and rights, including those stemming from equal employment laws where applicable;
§         The development of ways, which can include more flexible working hours, reduced hours of work and adequate child- and elder- care facilities, to enable both women and men to combine the building of a career and the rising of a family;
§         Mentoring for women to provide advice and develop their professional skills;
§         The appointment of corporate officers in the personnel departments of enterprises with responsibility for mentoring and promoting equal opportunities throughout the enterprise; and
§         Access of women to business skills-training and entrepreneurship development to help run their own business.

The participants also emphasized the importance of employers’ and workers’ organizations appointing women to top positions in their own structures and the significant role of national tripartite commissions, where they exist, in promoting equal opportunities for men and women.

Barriers to Advancement of Women in Management
Despite the career progress and achievements of many urban women in India, there are still several barriers that restrain many workingwomen from aspiring to climb up the career path in organizations beyond a particular level. Family reasons as well as organizational demands become detrimental to both workingwomen and their organizations that fail to tap the full potential of these experienced women, thereby becoming less productive themselves.  (Sekarn Uma, 2000).

As earlier stated, Indian organizational systems are, by and large, quite sensitive to family values and accommodate working women with paid maternity leave, and all other available leave privileges such as sick leave. However, the vast majority of the organizations are not flexible in terms of travel and transfers once women reach the management levels. Also, alternative work pattern arrangements such as flexible work hours, job sharing, and the life, especially at the higher levels, are conspicuous by their absence of Indian organizations. Though male workers may not yearn for these facilities, they would be a boon to working women.

We will discuss these barriers and review consequences of women being compelled to make assertive compromise of the women executive in hotels. The legends taken here are:
(1) Strongly Agree   (2) Agree    (3) Indifferent    (4) Disagree      (5) Strongly Disagree
Table No. 1
The most significant barrier to women’s advancement in Management
S. No.
Question asked
Percentage Response
(Women: 180)



%(1)

%(2)

%(3)

%(4)

%(5)

1.
 Exclusion from informal network
23.33
36.67
21.67
10
8.33
2.
Lack of technical skills
5
45
10
25
15
3.
 Lack of line experience
11.67
43.33
8.33
26.67
10
4.
 Lack of awareness of organizational politics
15
51.67
6.67
10
16.67

5.
 Personal style differences.
11.67
36.67
13.33
30
8.33
6.
 Lack of direct feed back.
13.33
50
15
16.67
5
7.
 Lack of mentoring.
10
43.33
20
21.67
5
8.
 Stereotyping and preconceptions regarding women’s role and abilities.
11.67
50
11.67
16.67
10
9.
 Inhospitable organizational culture.
11.67
30
11.67
30
11.67
10.
Family commitment.

15
43.33
11.67
26.67
3.33
11.
Lack of diversity in leadership ranks.

13.33
40
10
28.33
8.33
12.
Lack of opportunity to work in high viability assignments.
18.33
46.67
5
15
15

Organizational Culture and Glass Ceiling:
A considerable volume of research exists on organizational cultures, and a number of studies have focused on the negative impacts which organizational cultures can have on women in management positions. The phenomenon that has received most attention is that of the "glass ceiling" that a woman can encounter when she makes a move from middle into senior management (Davidson and Cooper, 1992). The experience of many women has been that, where this invisible barrier exists, it seems to result from the influence of male colleagues. Men are perceived to retain sexist practices and may not be comfortable working with women as members of a peer group. The ingrained corporate thinking can influence their behavior and, in its most severe manifestation, result in bullying. In turn, this can have a negative effect on women, leading them to doubt their abilities in the face of strong criticism and, perhaps, result in a re-evaluation of their goals. Views have been expressed that breaking through to senior management may require a "sledgehammer" to shatter this invisible yet very real barrier. A senior British woman diplomat who left the Foreign Office commented that her male colleagues spoke about her in sexist ways. She noted that when a woman is in favor, she is called "formidable," but when she is out of favor, the label is "strong-willed" (or worse) (Parsons, 1996).

Much of the research into the glass ceiling has been carried out in business corporations in the U.S. However, experience indicates that the major organizational barriers identified by one researcher, who studied conditions in the private sector, are also to be found in the public sector. The organizational barriers include:
  • A lonely and non-supportive working environment
  • A perception that views differences between men and women as being negative
  • An exclusion of people from group activities because of their differences
  • A failure to help individuals prepare for a management role and to balance work/personal life issues
  • A lack of organizational awareness or savvy (Morrison, 1992).

Lack of recruitment and opportunities for advancement are the reason most women tend to cite for the glass ceiling. According to Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, one of the most common reasons women identify for their under representation in top positions is “lack of good faith efforts” to recruit them (Ida L. Castro, 1997).

Among the other qualities in which women outpaced men were being task-oriented, analytical, and controlled. Women were also found to stay on top of their work more closely than men and were more likely to deliver projects on time. Moreover, women’s failure to move up in the corporate word is not because they don’t work hard. Surveys show that women executive work as many hours a week as comparable to men and are less likely to refuse to relocate (Rene Redwood, 1996).
The legend given in the table above indicates:

(1) To no extent  (2) To little extent  (3) To Moderate extent    (4) To a great extent



Table No. 2
Glass Ceiling in Hospitality Industry
S.No.                       Question Asked                                 Responses in Percent



%(1)

%(2)

%(3)

%(4)






1.
What extent do you feel a “Glass Ceiling” Exist in your Company?
20
53.33
16.67
10



2.
Do you believe pay inequality exits between males and females on the same credentials in your Place of employment?
21.67
43.33
25
10



3.
To what extent you say that the positions of women in “Corporate Management” in India have much improved in some recent years.
48.33
35
10
6.67




4.
To what extent are you satisfied with this statement that women have broken all the barriers that keep away women’s from rising to top executive positions;
5
21.67
26.67
46.66





Gender and Glass-Ceiling
Recent research is reviewed, and the unique aspects of the hospitality industry are emphasized and their influence on gender and communication is explored. Specific communication behaviors, and strategies for addressing common problems of communication between men and women, are then presented from a symbolic/culture view with the goal of improving communication between genders in the hospitality workplace Brownell, J. (2001).

Images of the hospitality industry include wine glasses, whirlpools, bathrobes and breakfast trays-symbols of romance, of feeling good, of sensuality. Because sociability and attractiveness are valued and emphasized, attention is drawn to employees' gender identities. A "sexualized" work environment is more likely to encourage and draw attention to gender-specific behaviors.
The symbolic/culture approach was used as a framework for understanding unique aspects of the hospitality industry and their impact on gender and communication. From this perspective, communicative behavior creates gender as it creates other organizational realities. While it is through interaction with others that employees learn what gender means within a specific organizational framework, gender itself is a significant variable in influencing individual perceptions (Brownell, J., 2001).
 

Gender has more impact in receiving (or not receiving) a promotion at your current place of employment?
The responses from the women respondents on the question that gender has impacted more
Figure No. 7
 in receiving or not receiving a promotion at your current place of employment is quite interesting. 25% women executives accept the fact that it is true that gender has impacted positively in receiving or not receiving a promotion at their working place, and 7% women respondent also accepted that gender had impacted very positively impacted in receiving (or not receiving) a promotion in their current place. While 22% women executive decline the above statement on gender discrimination, and 8% women respondents also decline the above statement which states that gender has impacted more in receiving or not receiving a promotion at their current or previous workplace. Another group of 38% women said there is no impact on receiving or not receiving promotion within the hospitality industry  or any other industry to being a women

This shows that the percentage of the women respondents is more who accept that gender has no impact on their promotion within the organization. Only a small number of women respondent said that gender has had a negative impact in receiving or not receiving a promotion at their current workplace.

Few organizations are consciously aware of their culture and it is seldom addressed in organizational induction programs. Newly appointed managers may be left to try and understand what really makes the organization work, where the centers of power reside, and the informal networks that influence decision-making. If the woman manager is the sole woman working at her level, she may be excluded from the informal discussions and interaction that help to understand the true culture of the organization.

It is then perhaps not surprising that one type of an organizational culture which women find stifling is that in which "macho management" is operated. Macho management operates in a male-dominated organizational culture that researchers liken to a male "locker room." Many women who have moved into senior management will experience this type of culture when breaking through the glass ceiling. The Locker Room culture is an exclusionary culture where men build relationships that share common assumptions, agreements, and habits. Frequent references are made to male sports, and sexual comments confirm their heterosexuality. Dominant body language is used to draw attention to individuals during meetings. At its worst, women are encouraged to be "Superwomen," and they do this at a great risk to themselves. The "Smart Macho" manager feels under great pressure to be competitive and to reach performance targets such that they discriminate against those who cannot keep up (G. Edward Evans, Patricia Layzell Ward, and Bendik Rugaas).

Research carried out in the U.K. has identified other variants of behavior patterns in male-dominated cultures. The "Gentleman’s Club" views the woman as being the homemaker and the man as the natural breadwinner. This view can affect selection procedures and conditions of work and childcare. The management is civilized and polite. Male managers who are courteous, humane, and paternalistic keep women in their place. They ask about the employee and her family. Women who conform are accepted. It is the experience of most women who break through the glass ceiling that they have to manage the Club-and watch their back for gossip from men and women.

Another type of management culture found in hierarchical organizations is the "Barrack Yard." This is a bullying culture where supervisors intimidate and ignore subordinates. Usually, a small group, which can be vicious and use its power, accordingly, dominates this culture. Such behavior would not be tolerated in a woman (Maddock and Parkin, 1994).

The deeply entrenched hierarchies that dominant most organizations are not restricted to gender hierarchies - they encompass hierarchies of position, professional qualifications, age and class, to name only a few. These hierarchies continue to exist even in seemingly open and unstructured organizations and constitute a major barrier to equitable relations between the people who work in them. Because women are generally concentrated at the lower end of most hierarchies, change in the direction of gender equity and equality creates more space for everyone in the organization to participate in organizational processes.

The major responsibility for restructuring organizations rests with those who exercise the greatest power and control. At one level, these are the senior managers, who decide both the content and process of its functioning. As in most other organizations, the senior managers are mostly men. At another level, all the men in the organization - including those at lower levels in the hierarchy - are more powerful than the women. This is because the structures and systems of the organization have been designed largely to suit the needs and priorities of men, who are also represented in greater numbers in decision-making at critical levels.
A strategy to build an empowering organization must therefore act simultaneously at several levels. It must create the space and opportunity for the informed involvement of those who are presently at the margins (women and those who are at the lower levels in the hierarchy) and build their capacities to intervene in and influence agenda setting and decision-making. It must also create new structures and new systems that make it easier for those who are at the top of the hierarchy (senior managers and men) to share their power.

The process of gendered organization development must create an environment conducive to reflection and analysis which goes beyond gender issues. People should be able to identify and own the areas where organizational practice falls short of or contradicts organizational values. A good way to facilitate this is to ask sub-groups within the organization to look at their own work, identify the gaps and find ways to address them. This can then be matched with feedback from other sub-groups, and an action plan evolved.

A team-based approach can be a central strategy with enormous potential - it can lead to the enhancement of people's capacities to own and take responsibility for their own work. This process can be systematically supplemented by the development of skills in interpersonal communication, feedback, group processes and inter-group processes. The culture of the organization can thus shift in a collaborative and supportive manner, where confrontations are used creatively to move towards more effective functioning. Senior management and division heads would need to take on a central role in the process.

One of the questions which inevitably come up in the course of gender mainstreaming in organizations, is whether such a strategy over-privileges women, regardless of their professional capabilities. This is an issue, which must be addressed transparently. Gender mainstreaming creates opportunities for women and men at all levels to participate as equals in agenda-setting and decision-making within the organization. A mainstreaming strategy also builds in support for women to move into spaces and roles from which they have hitherto been excluded. Women, as much as men, can feel threatened by the demands of such a process of change. It would be naive to presume that gender biases are the only determining factor in career progression within the organization. It is important to help individuals to examine their own experiences and perceptions of exclusion and privilege, and differentiate between those which stem largely from gender inequality and inequity, and those which reflect differences in competence and performance (United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Gender bias is a worldwide phenomenon, but it is especially pernicious in the third world, where most of women’s activities take place for the purpose of household consumption. With a hue and cry for gender equality, this powerful and perfectionist male image and resulting suppressed emotional needs, have also started targeting women. On one side, women have become more hardworking, educated, loyal, dedicated, responsible and effective workers; on the other hand, dual role of housewives and career women imposes a great strain on them (Rishi Parul, 2005).
In view of the existing scenario of women in management in general and the status of women executives in hospitality Industry, a number of relevant issue need to be considered in formulating and implementing appropriate strategies for making workplace better for women’s executive in near future. There is no doubt that different barriers ‘glass ceiling’ prevent women form reaching top or top executive positions is reality and it becomes pertinent to know the magnitude of this problem in India.
It is undeniable that there exists a physiological difference between men and women. This truth is used to justify the unequal treatment of women on all levels of human interactions. The uneven treatment is clearly reflected in the attitude of our social system toward the female gender. And the prevailing historical attitude of men towards women would have us believe that physiological differences limit women in their choice of career, their intellectual maturity, their credibility, as well as their ability to be effective contributors to the advancement of human society and that these differences warrant that women be treated differently from men. Thus, this attitude defines a view of women in which their "role" is that of keeper of hearth and home while that of the man is to provide for and protect this "weaker sex"--a view which continues to define different social roles for men and women.
It appears the push for diversity hasn't yet removed from corporate  world  in relation to glass ceiling. Although the percentage of women among the highest-paid corporate officers has increased in small increments over the last five years,
Many women traditionally put their careers on hold -- or discard them -- to raise children, while men continue to climb the corporate ladder. And because there are few female executives, there's also a small pool to choose from for board seats.
The number of women securing jobs as senior managers and directors has risen sharply in the past decade, according to research released today.
In brief, we can say that women have finally reached parity with men- not just by breaking through glass ceiling, but finally being in corporate promotional attire.



References
Brain S. Moskal, “Women Make Better Managers,” Industry Week, February 3, 1997. P-17.:The Glass Ceiling Persists: The 3rd Annual APPC Report on Women Leaders In Communication Companies; The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. By Erika Falik, Washington Research Director, and Erin Grizard, Research Assistant, 2003.
Brownell, J. (2001). Gender and communication in the hospitality industry. Women and Men Communicating: Challenges and Changes. Chapter in L. P. Arliss & D. J. Borisoff (Eds.), Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College, pp. 193-216 .
Building Gender Equatable Organizations: United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
Cathy Young. “Opting Out.” Reasononline. June, 2004.
Collected on the basis of the International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO-68); Copyright 1996-2005, International Labour Organization (ILO).| webinfo@ilo.org /www.feminist.org
G. Edward Evans, Patricia Layzell Ward, and Bendik Rugaas :Women in Management: ©G. Edward Evans, Patricia Layzell Ward, and Bendik Rugaa.
Ida L. Castro, “ Should Women be Worried About Glass Ceiling in the Workplace?, Insight on the news, February 10, 1997. The 3rd Annual APPC Report on Women Leaders In Communication Companies; The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. By Erika Falik, Washington Research Director, and Erin Grizard, Research Assistant, 2003.
ILO Report :World of Work: Will the Glass Ceiling ever be broken?; Women in management: It’s still lonely at the Top.
Morrison, A.M., R.P. White, and E. Van Velsor. (1987). Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach the Top of America’s Largest Corporations? Reading, MA: Addision-Wesley.
Naomi Lopez. “Free Markets, Free Choice II: Smashing the Wage Gap and Glass Ceiling Myths.” Pacific research institute.
Nora Frenkiel, “ The Up and Comers: Brayant Takes Aim  at Settlers-In” , Adweek, March, 1984.
Rene Redwood, The Glass Ceiling (Working Women Summit, 1996): www. Inmotionmagazine.com/glass. html
Richard F. Martell and Christopher Parker, “Sex Stereotyping in the Executive Suite: ‘Much Ado About Something’, International Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 13, no. 1 (1998) : The Glass Ceiling Persists: The 3rd Annual APPC Report on Women Leaders In Communication Companies; The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. By Erika Falik, Washington Research Director, and Erin Grizard, Research Assistant, 2003.
Rishi Parul (2005), “I Love My Stress: Women Cope with Stress more confidently than Men” Faculty in Personnel Management & Organizational Beheavior at Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal (M.P) An article published in Effective Executive a monthly magazine, Oct. 2005.
Sally Pipes. “Women: Dancing on the Glass Ceiling.” Pacific research Instiute.
Sekaran Uma : “Indian Women’s Progress in the World of Work: Implications for Organization Redesign” An article published in “Women Employees and Human Resource management Edited by Nalini Sastry Subrata Pandey
Wendy McElroy. “Wage Gap Reflects Women’s Priorities.”iFeminisists.com, Sep,  22, 2004.
Related Readings
Adler N. J. (1996), “Women in Management: World Wide International Studies of Management and Organizations,” No.3.
Anita Anand: “ Women Not Allowed” May 14, 2005.
Baer, Judith A. Women's Rights in the U.S.A.: Policy Debates and Gender Roles. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1991.
Baron, J.N. and W.T. Bielby. (1985). Organizational Barriers to Gender Equity: Sex Segregation of Jobs and Opportunities. In Gender and Life Course, ed. Alice Rossi. New York.
Brent Ritche, Charles R. Goeldens: “Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research: A Handbook for Managers and Researchers”, 2nd Edition; Hardcover/282 Pages/ John Wiley & Sons Inc./ Feb.1994.
Cary, L. Cooper and Marilyn J. Davidson (1984), “Women in Management: Career development for managerial success,” London, Heinemann.
Davidson J. Marilyn and Buke J. Ronald (2000), “Women in Management: A research issues Vol. II” Sege, London.DeCrow, Karen. Sexist Justice. New York: Random House, 1974.
DeCrow, Karen. Sexist Justice. New York: Random House, 1974.
Ellen Boneparth, “Women Power and Policy,” Pergamon press, NewYork, Oxford, Frankfort, Sydney, Paris, Toronto.
Fagenson, E.A. (1999), “Women in Management: Trends, Issues and challenges managerial diversity,” Thousand Oaks, CA; Sege.
Ghosh A. (2000), “Position of Women in Organization Hierarchy: Term paper under the guidance of Prof. Sunita Sen Gupta at IIM Calcutta,
Hiremath R.C. (2000), “Women is Changing World,” Hiremath Publishers, Jaipur, India.
Hoff, Joan. Law, Gender and Injustice: A Legal History of U.S. Women. New York: New York University Press, 1991.
Jackal, R. (1988), “Moral Mazes: The world of corporate managers,” New York: Oxford University Press.
Kanowitz, Leo. Equal Rights: The Male Stake. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1981.
Kimbly J. Shinew and Margaret L. Arnold, “Can Female Middle Managers Break the Glass Ceiling? : A revealing study of how women in middle management view their career advancement opportunities.
Kraisons Wasdi, Napasri (1989),“Women Executives:A sociological study of role effectiveness,” Rawat 172 p.
Kumar Krishna: “International Tourism in India: Strategic Significance Gaps and Vulnerabilities:, I I M Lucknow (India ).
Luacus Rosemary (2004): “Employment Relation in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries” Rutledge, Paperback, 312 p.
Madeleine Arnot, Jo-Anne, Dillabough: “Changing Democracy International Perspective on Gender Education and Citizenship”, Education, 2001, 320 p.
Marraret Hefferman and friends: “The Naked Truth: Women and Modern Business”
Marshall, J. and Cooper L.L. (1993 a), “Organizational culture and women Managers: Exploring of dynamics of residence, applied psychology,” An International review, 42(4) pp, 313-322.
Mezey, Susan Gluck. In Pursuit of Equality: Women, Public Policy, and the Federal Courts. New York: St Martin's Press, 1992.
Michael Piley: “Human Resource Management in Hospitality & Tourism Industry”, 2nd Edition (Illustrated); Paperback/219 Pages/ Butterworth –Heinemann/ Dec 1996
Michal Hick (Author & Consultant): “The Global Women: How women will win in the international Market.
O’ Leary, V.E. and J.R. Ickovics. (1992). Cracking the Glass Ceiling: Overcoming Isolation and Alienation. In Womanpower, ed. U. Sekarna and F. Leong. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Patel Vinita (2002), “Women Challenges in New Millennium,” Gyan Pub. New Delhi,270 p.
Powel G.N., “Reflections on the glass ceiling”. Hand book of gender and work. Sage Pub. New Delhi,1999.
Rhoodie, Eschel M. Discrimination Against Women: A global Survey of the Economic, Educational, Social, and Political Status of Women. Jefferson: Mc Farland and Company, Inc., 1989.
Thandoni Manav (MD) & Makam Deepika (Editor HVS international): “Hotels in India: Trends and Opportunity:; New Delhi, Nov 2004.
Tharenon, P. Latimar, S. & Conroy; D. (1994), “How do you make if to top? An examination of influences in women’s and men’s managerial advancement,” Academy of management journal, 37 pp. 899-931.
Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929.
Zichry, shoya (2001) , “ Women and Leadership Q: The break through system for achieving power and influence,” Mc. Grawhill, New York.




 


[1] Asst. Professor, Department of Management, Dronacharya Engineering College, Greater Noida (U.P.)
[2] Research Scholar, M.Phil., Institute of  Management Study, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (U.P.)
3 Librarian,  Dronacharya Engineering College, Greater Noida (U.P.)

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